Civics Webpage Content
CHAPTER – 1
India is a country of vast diversity. People speak different languages, celebrate different festivals and eat various types of food. Diversity is a reality created by individuals and groups from a broad spectrum of demographic and philosophical differences. People are different from each other in many ways. Not only do they look different but they might also belong to different regional, cultural or religious backgrounds. All these different people & cultures help to make India so interesting & so diverse. In this chapter you will understand what does diversity add to your lives, how did India become like this, & can diversity also be a part of unity.
CHAPTER – 2
DIVERSITY & DISCRIMINATION
Often people who look unusual or different are criticised by others, or not accepted in the community. These behaviours can hurt them, and they might also feel sad and angry. Have you ever thought about why this happens? In this chapter, we will enlighten you about how diversity and discrimination run hand to hand, and will educate you to be better and beautiful citizens of the country, so that you understand the beauty of diversity in our country.
CHAPTER – 3
WHAT IS GOVERNMENT?
Government is the system of governing a state or community. The system of social control, the right to make laws under it, and the right to enforce them are given to a certain group of society. It is important to know how a country runs and the role that citizens play in it. This chapter talks about what a government is. It describes the roles, responsibilities and duties of a government. It also talks about the types of government and the laws associated with it.
CHAPTER – 4
KEY ELEMENTS OF A DEMOCRATIC GOVERNMENT
The chapter is full of concepts that are important for students to learn and understand about a democratic government. There are mainly three forms of government : monarchy, dictatorship & monarchy. Democracy is a government in which power and civic responsibility are exercised by the adult citizens or exercised through their freely elected representatives. In this chapter you will read about some of the key elements that influences the working of a democratic government. You will learn about the apartheid laws in South Africa & how Nelson Mandela alongwith the support of people eliminated this opressive regime & established a democratic rule in the country.
CHAPTER – 5
What happens after people elect their representatives? How are decisions made? It is done through the Panchayati Raj system. Panchayati Raj is the Indian system of local self-government employed in the rural areas. Despite being based on the old panchayati system of the Indian subcontinent, it was incorporated by a constitutional amendment in 1992. Let’s look at how the decisions are made in rural areas in this chapter. This chapter discusses the gram sabha and gram panchayat roles, responsibilities, and obligations.
CHAPTER – 6
Taking care of the needs for water, electricity, road connections, etc., is not a small task. In rural India, all these facilities are managed by the rural administration. We will learn about the land records and how they are maintained in rural areas. The chapter also talks about the jurisdiction of a police station, its role in resolving a conflict, work at the police station & how the complaints are registered. We would also briefly study the Hindu Succession Amendment Act, 2005 and what it does.
CHAPTER – 7
In this chapter, the students will understand how urban administration plays a significant role in providing basic amenities like water and electricity, how it is required to collect taxes. It explains in detail the roles and responsibilities of urban administration. The students will learn that municipal corporations carry out urban administration duties. The chapter also talks about two case studies that includes the information about the Surat plague in 1994 & the significant cleanliness drive of government of India, the Swachh Bharat Mission.
CHAPTER – 8
In this chapter, we will look at the various ways in which people earn their living in villages. We will also examine whether people have equal opportunities to earn a living. People in rural area usually work on farms or are engaged in other farm activities. They also earn their living via non farm activities such as poultry farming, fishing or dairy farming. We will also look at the different types of farmers & how they manage their agricultural expenses. At last, we will experience a special type of farming practiced in Nagaland.
CHAPTER – 9
Urban livelihood covers the different jobs that people perform in big towns and cities. We would learn about the diverse livelihoods in urban areas. We will see how jobs in cities are slightly different from the ones in rural areas. In cities, you will find a lot of rickshaw pullers, street vendors, vegetable sellers, etc. This chapter also contains case studies of rickshaw pullers and people in small business. These case studies tell us about how these people operate and live-in cities. And we will also look at the factors that affects migration of people from rural areas to big cities.