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Food: Where Does it Come From?

Food is a Nutritious substance that people or animals eat or drink, or that plants absorb. To maintain life and growth. There is a lot of variation in the food eaten in different regions of India. The main sources of our food are plants and animals. Food sources from plants:- vegetables, pulses, spices, cereals, fruits, oils, etc. Food sources from animals: milk, egg, honey, meat, fish, etc. Other sources of food are salt and water. Based on eating habits animals are divided among herbivores, carnivores, and omnivores. In this chapter per, we will learn about Food, the variety of food, and the sources of food.


The foods you choose to eat can have a direct impact on your ability to enjoy life to its fullest. Perhaps the most obvious positive effect of food is the pleasurable feeling you get from eating a good-tasting meal. Nutrients are food substances that provide nourishment to the body. The major nutrients in our food are carbohydrates, proteins, fats, vitamins, and minerals. In addition,food also contains dietary fibers and water. A Balanced diet provides all the nutrients that our body needs, in the right quantities, along with an adequate amount of roughage and water. In this chapter, we will know about the components of foods and the diseases caused by their deficiency.


Fiber is defined as a natural material, available as raw in the form of tiny, thread-like strands converted into yarn. there are many ways in which fibers are categorized one such way is  based on their occurrence in nature, Fibers are of two types Natural fibers and synthetic fibers. Fabrics are made from yarns, which in turn are made from fibers. Making Fabric from Yarn is done by two processes: Weaving: The process by which two sets of yarns are arranged together to form a fabric. It is done on looms and Knitting. In this chapter, we will learn about how to make fabrics from fibers.

Sorting Material into Groups

Objects around us are made up of a large variety of materials. A given material could be used to make a large number of objects. It is also possible that an object could be made of a single material or many different materials. Different types of materials have different properties. Some materials are shiny while others are not. Some are rough, some smooth.
Similarly, some materials are hard, whereas others are soft. Some materials are soluble in water whereas others are insoluble. Some materials such as glass, are transparent and some others such as wood and metals are opaque. Some materials are translucent. In this chapter, we will sort materials into groups.


Separation is one of the most useful techniques to sort different materials from the mixture. Handpicking, winnowing, sieving, sedimentation, decantation, and filtration are some methods of separating substances from their mixtures. Separation of solids from other solids is done by threshing, Winning, handpicking, and seviving. The separation of water-soluble solids is done by evaporation and condensation. Separation of insoluble solids from Liquids is done by Sedimentation, Decantation, filtration, etc. In this chapter, we will learn about a different method of separation and also how cater can dissolve different amounts of soluble substances.

Changes Around Us

Change is the only constant in this world. Some changes are reversible while others are nonreversible There are different types of changes like reversible change (melting of ice), nonreversible change(cooking of food), physical change (cutting a wooden block), and chemical change(milk into curd), etc. Different ways by which a change can occur are Boiling, Condensation Heating of metal, Freezing and Melting, etc. In this chapter we will learn about how these changes occur in nature whether we can reverse is or not and what are the traits of physical and chemical changes.


Plants are living things that grow from the soil and turn light from the Sun into food. Plants can be big or small, from giant trees to tiny patches of moss. Plants use a process called photosynthesis to turn sunlight into food in their leaves. Plants are usually grouped into herbs, shrubs, trees, and climbers based on their height stems, and branches. plants are also classified based on their Life Cycle as Annuals, Biennials, and perennials. A plant is divided into two parts, a root system, and a shoot system. In this chapter, we will learn about various part of parts of the plant and their functions.


The human skeleton is a framework that gives shape and support to the body. It consists of 206 bones. Locomotion is the movement of organisms from place to place. Locomotion in the human body is because of the Human skeleton system. It consists of Skull, ribcage backbones, arms legs, and hip bones. The point where two bones meet and allow movement to take place is called a joint. There are two types of joints Movable Joints and Immovable or Fixed Joints. Different animals have different movement skills Birds move through their wings, fishes move with the help of their thrust by the tails, and so on. In this chapter, we will earn about, how various organisms move especially humans.


The surroundings where plants and animals live together are called their habitat. Several kinds of plants and animals may share the same habitat. The presence of specific features and habits, which enable a plant or an animal to live in a particular habitat, is called adaptation. There are many types of habitats, however, these may be broadly grouped as terrestrial and aquatic. There is a wide variety of organisms present in different habitats.
Plants, animals, and microorganisms together constitute biotic components. Rocks, soil, air, water, light, and temperature are some of the abiotic components of our surroundings. In this chapter, we will learn about the habitat of different organisms and why they adopted such climatic conditions.


Different modes of transport are used to go from one place to another. The International System of Units ( SI unit) is accepted all over the world. Meter is the unit of length in the SI unit. Motion in a straight line is called rectilinear motion. In a circular motion, an object moves such that its distance from a fixed point remains the same. Motion that repeats itself after some time, is called periodic motion. Measurement is a comparison of an unknown quantity with some known quantity of the same kind. In this chapter, we will learn about different motion and their means of measurement.


Light is the natural agent that stimulates sight and makes things visible. It is classified into two types, one that emits and one that reflects. Shadow is the Region without light that forms behind an object kept in the path of light. Opaque objects cast a dark shadow. Translucent objects produce a weak shadow. Transparent objects do not cast a shadow at all. There are different types of shadows the most prominent one is Eclipse which is A shadow formed in space that makes the sun or the moon invisible for some time. In this chapter, we will learn about the basics of light shadow, ellipses, and reflections.


Electricity is a flow of electric current. There The Electric current flows in Electric Circuit. In a closed electric circuit, the electric current passes from one terminal of the electric cell to the other terminal. Circuit Diagrams are a symbolic representation of the electric circuit. The Electric current is carried by the Conductor. Conductors are the Materials that allow an electric current to pass through them. Electric current is stopped by Insulators. Insulators are Materials that do not allow an electric current to pass through them. In this chapter, we will
learn about electric current, circuits, and the material which allows an electric current to flow through them.


Magnets are Materials that attract iron. Natural magnet is called Iodestone or magnetite. Magnetite is a natural magnet. The magnet attracts materials like iron, nickel, and cobalt. These are called magnetic materials. Materials that are not attracted toward magnets are called non-magnetic. A freely suspended magnet always aligns in the N-S direction. There are different ways to activate magnetic material like the Single Touch Method, Double Touch Method, and Using Electric Current. A magnet has two poles – the north pole and the south pole. Similar poles repel each other. Opposite poles attract each other. Magnetic poles always exist in pairs. In this chapter, we will learn about the magnet and its uses.


Water is essential for life. Water that is fit for human consumption is known as Freshwater or Potable water. Only 2.6% of total water is fresh water. Only 0.01% of the full water reaches humans and animals. Water Cycle is the cycle of processes by which water circulates between the earth’s oceans, atmosphere, and land, involving precipitation as rain and snow, drainage in streams and rivers, and return to the atmosphere by evaporation and transpiration. Water Conservation is the wise and judicious use of water. In this chapter, we will learn about water and why we need to save water we will also learn about rainwater harvesting.


Air is the invisible gaseous substance surrounding the earth, a mixture mainly of oxygen and nitrogen. The blanket of air that surrounds the earth is called the atmosphere. Air in motion is called wind. Air occupies space. Air is a mixture of nitrogen, oxygen, carbon dioxide, water vapor, and a few other gases. The atmosphere is essential for life on earth. Aquatic animals use dissolved air in water for respiration. Plants and animals depend on each other for the exchange of oxygen and carbon dioxide from the air. In this chapter we will learn about various constituents of air, what are their uses, and their composition in the atmosphere.


Waste is a material that has no longer any value to the person who is responsible for it. There is various source of Waste that as Domestic Waste, Industrial waste, Agricultural waste, and Commercial waste. There are two major categories of waste Biodegradable wastes(plant products, domestic refuse, animal wastes, etc.) and Non-biodegradable wastes: (plastics, glass, metal, scraps, etc.). These waste products need to be managed for their proper disposal, in this regards 3R’s that is Reduce, Reuse, Recycle is introduced, It means the reduce waste production, reuse of materials and recycling and reprocessing of waste materials for making new products. In this chapter, we will learn about various waste product and their proper disposal.

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